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Cancer is a generic term that includes a range of diseases that can affect all parts of the body, and these diseases are also referred to as tumors. The characteristics of cancer include the rapid reproduction of abnormal cells that can grow beyond their known boundaries, break-in sympering parts of the body, and spread to other organs, known as the "metastatic".
Metastases are the leading causes of death for cancer.

Causes of cancer:
The cancer arises from one cell. The normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell in multiple stages, usually from a potentially carcinogenic lesion to malignant tumors. These changes are caused by the interaction between an individual's genetic factors and some external factors.
The incidence of cancer increases significantly with age, most likely due to the increased risk of certain cancers with age, and the accumulation of cancer risks is reduced as the effectiveness of cellular repair mechanisms decreases as a person ages.
Tobacco and alcohol use, lack of vegetable and fruit intake, hepatitis C and B infection and cervical cancer virus infection are also major risk factors for cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, cervical cancer caused by HUMAN PAPIllomavirus is one of the leading causes of death for women from cancer in low-income countries.

Known causes of cancer can be summarized as follows:
Consumption of tobacco or its derivatives.
• Overweight or obesity.
• Lack of vegetables and fruits.
• Physical inactivity.
• Alcohol use.
Sexually transmitted infections such as HIV and cervical cancer virus.
• Air pollution in cities.
Exposure to smoke caused by solid fuel burns inside buildings.

Risk factors:
Age: Most cancers are detected at age 55 and older, but cancer can be detected at any age.
Lifestyle: The rate of cancer in people with unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, direct exposure to sunlight and forbidden relationships increases.
Family history: Genetics account for 5-10% of cancer, but not necessarily everyone who has a genetic factor develops cancer.
Health condition: There is a relationship between chronic diseases and cancer such as chronic colitis.

Symptoms and signs:
Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ of the body. It is between fever, pain, fatigue and fatigue, and a sudden change in weight (mostly low). As the mass or thickness of the perceptible fish appears under the skin, the skin changes color (yellowing, redness, turning to dark color) or the presence of wounds that do not heal, persistent cough, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, indigestion, change in the habit of defecation and output.

Diagnostic:
Your doctor may perform one of the following procedures to diagnose the disease depending on the patient's condition:
• Clinical examination: Your doctor examines the patient's body, looks for any mass, skin color change, or increased size indicating cancer.
Laboratory tests: This is done by taking a blood sample to detect cancer such as leukemia.
• Radiology: Radiology scans bones and internal organs such as ultrasound, bone x-rays, MRI scans and CT scans.
• Biopsy: There are different ways to collect a biopsy sample, and taking the biopsy depends on a type ofcancer and its location in the body.
• Early diagnosis of cancer helps to speed up the treatment of the condition, and then to heal, God willing.
• Periodic medical examination helps detect cancer at an early stage. It is regularly conducted for the most vulnerable groups.
• The American Cancer Society has recommended a series of medical tests to prevent cancer for adults.

For the most exposed categories type of cancer
The most vulnerable groups
Type of cancer
Women aged 40 or older
Breast cancer
Women aged 21 or older
Cervical
Women and men aged 50 or over
Colon cancer
Men aged 50 or over
Prostate cancer


Stages ofcancer:
The doctor is looking for the stages of the spread of the disease in the body, and in general the cancer is classified in four stages from (stage 1) to (stage IV), and is the fourth most seriousstage.

Complications ofcancer:
• Abnormal interaction of the immune system with cancer: in some cases the immune system reacts and attacks healthycells.
The spread of the disease: Cancer may attack other parts of the body.
• Re-infection: Some cancers can reappear, so it is important to follow upthe condition after treatment and to do regularmedical examinations.

Treatment:
Cancer treatment depends on several factors, perhaps the most prominent of which is the type of cancer, its stage, and the patient's state of health.

The purpose of cancertreatment:
• Initial treatment: Usually done by surgery for the purpose of gettingrid of cancer cells.
• Supportive therapy: works to kill the remaining cancer cells after initial treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation or hormonaltreatment.
Palliative therapy: treatment for the purpose of controlling the complications of the disease.

Cancer treatmentoptions:
Surgical treatment: to get rid of the tumor.
Chemotherapy: drugs that kill cancercells.
Radiation therapy: using high-energy x-rays such as X-rays.
• Stem cell transplantation: through bone marrow transfer, it can be taken from a patient or a donor.
Biotherapy: The body's immune system helps detect and fight cancer cells.
• Hormone therapy: Some cancers feed on body hormones such as breast and prostate cancer, when you get rid of the body hormone the cancercell dies.

Prevention:
 There is no specific way to prevent cancer, but there are factors that reduce the risk of the disease as follows:
• Refrain from smoking: There is a strong relationship between cancer and smoking, especially lungcancer.
• Avoid direct exposure to sunlight, especially harmful UV rays, by sitting in the shade, wearing protective clothing, and usingsunscreen.
• Proper nutrition: Choose foods rich in fruits and vegetables, and choose whole grains such as oats, brown rice and crushedwheat.
• Exercise regularly: 30-minute exercise daily helps reduce the chance of cancer.
• Maintain ing ideal weight: Research has shown that there is a strong relationship between obesity (overweight) and cancer,and the ideal weight can be reached with regular exercise and proper nutrition.
• Regular medicalexamination.
• Vaccinations: There are specific viruses that cause cancer, such as hepatitis B virus, which causes liver cancer, and the virus that causes cervical cancer, and vaccination can prevent you from these viruses.
• Take enough sleep and rest.
• Avoid the stressesof life and practice yourhobbies.